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When lawmakers rose up , seizing control of the legislative process, and Mr. Johnson lost his majority in Parliament, he responded by tossing out rebels from his Conservative Party and demanding a new general election. The deadline for withdrawal is currently Oct. Johnson insists he can cut a deal with the European Union before then. But time is rapidly running out. What ultimately emerges could determine the shape of Britain and its place in the world for decades.
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Following is a basic guide to Brexit, what it is, how it developed into the mess it is today and how it could ultimately be resolved. Britain has been debating the pros and cons of membership in a European community of nations almost from the moment the idea was broached. It held its first referendum on membership in what was then called the European Economic Community in , less than three years after it joined, when 67 percent of voters supported staying in the bloc.
In , Prime Minister David Cameron promised a national referendum on European Union membership with the idea of settling the question once and for all.
The options it offered were broad and vague — Remain or Leave — and Mr. Cameron was convinced that Remain would win handily.
Britons voted on June 23, , as a refugee crisis made migration a subject of political rage across Europe and amid accusations that the Leave campaign had relied on lies and broken election laws. An ill-defined Brexit won 52 percent of the vote.
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Not only did that not settle the debate, but it also saved for another day the tangled question of what should come next. After nearly three years of debate and negotiation, that remains unanswered. Most voters in England and Wales supported Brexit, particularly in rural areas and smaller cities. See a detailed map of the vote. Young people overwhelmingly voted against leaving, while older voters supported it.
An announcement, or at least a threat, from a major business to leave Britain because of Brexit is a regular occurrence. The list of companies that are thinking about relocating includes Airbus , which employs 14, people and supports more than , other jobs. May had promised that Brexit would end free movement, the right of people from elsewhere in Europe to live and work in Britain, and vice versa.
That was a triumph for some working-class people who see immigration as a threat to their jobs, but dispiriting for young Britons hoping to study or work abroad. Johnson wants to strike an agreement of his own with Brussels by Oct. Undoing 46 years of economic integration in one stroke was never going to be easy, and the Brexit process has been bedeviled by the same divisions that led to the referendum in the first place.
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May spent 18 months negotiating a divorce deal with the European Union, shedding one cabinet minister after another in the process. Her plan would have kept customs and trade arrangements at least temporarily, but ultimately envisioned cutting most of those ties. When she presented her plan to Parliament in January, it was rejected by a historic margin of votes. When she tried again in March, she fared less badly, but the pact was still soundly defeated , to Some ardent Brexiteers, who would accept a no-deal withdrawal, came around to supporting Mrs.
But a third attempt to pass her bill, also in March, failed to That prompted Mrs. May to do something she had hoped to avoid: negotiate with Labour, which advocates a soft Brexit.
https://rikonn.biz/wp-content/2020-07-26/controllare-consumo-dati-iphone-6-plus.php Those talks failed to accomplish anything that would allow her to proceed, and she was eventually forced to abandon plans for a fourth vote. The revised plan was scorned by both Conservative and Labour lawmakers, and the decision not to publish the plan, let alone hold a vote, was a clear sign that Mrs. May and her Irish counterpart, Leo Varadkar, want to prevent checkpoints from going up at the border; such barriers are generally seen as incompatible with the Good Friday Agreement of , which brought respite from decades of violence in Northern Ireland.
The backstop would keep the United Kingdom in a trading relationship with Europe until a final deal to avoid a hard border could be agreed on, something that hard-line Brexiteers fear would never happen. And it would bind Northern Ireland to even more European rules, to the dismay of those who reject any regulatory differences between Northern Ireland and the rest of the United Kingdom.
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