An integrated design review and validation capability is also important. It should use the library of pipe classes that the designer specifies should be used for a specific project and should be integrated into the 3D CAD software so that equipment locations and pipe routing can be accurately planned. An isometrics module should be available that generates isometric images directly from the 3D plant assembly model in the 3D CAD software.
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(PDF) Process Plant Layout | Sean Moran - ningfesemamer.ga
Search instead for. Did you mean:. Since not all of the possible lead disciplines are engineers, I have used the term layout designer throughout the book as the designation of the engineer or architect responsible for layout design. Chemical or process engineers will always be involved in layout, as they are required in all cases to size the unit operations process equipment and, to some extent, to set out their mutual interrelationships in space. They may do little more than this, they may lead the process, or they may do all of it themselves on smaller plants in certain sectors.
Piping engineers are often used where there is a lot of complicated and expensive pipework, e. Architects are often used where there are significant numbers of buildings, or where the plant must be integrated within a building. In recent years, architects have become increasingly responsible for on the layout of indoor process plants as part of the building design. Terminology has been updated and standardized throughout this second edition. It has been necessary, e.
Process Plant Layout — Becoming a Lost Art?
There is disagreement between layout designers about what constitutes plant, site, and plot layout, what the various layout drawings are called, and even what people responsible for layout design are called. This disagreement occurs less within disciplines and within industries than it does between disciplines and industries, but even within a discipline in a single industry sector, there is a lack of consistency. It has therefore been necessary to develop precise definitions of the terminology used, in order to clarify the meaning of the text.
The model base case used in this book is that which was used in my earlier book An Applied Guide to Process and Plant Design Moran, The level of disagreement about terminology and staging of layout design between layout designers of different disciplines, from different industries, makes it essential to define terms consistently to write a coherent text about the subject. However, I make no claim that these are the correct definitions, only that these are the ones I am using, and that they are perhaps the most commonly used ones. Definitions are to be found at the start of each chapter in which they are used, but it will clarify matters to outline a few key terms at the outset.
However, this usage is incompatible with the present legally defined meaning of the term plant. A Site may contain a number of process plants, as well as nonprocess plant and buildings. In Fig. Process Plant or more simply Plant has been defined for the purposes of this book as a complete set of process units and direct supporting infrastructure required to provide a total operational function to produce a product or products….
Plants may be arranged across a number of plots— An area of a site most commonly defined as being bounded by the road system… —which is bounded, as implied by the definition, by plot roads. Plots are shown in aqua in Fig. The term plant is sometimes but never in the rest of this book used by practitioners synonymously with plot reflecting the reasonably common occurrence where a plant occupies a single plot.
Within the discipline of layout design, a distinction is commonly made between piping layout defined here as the layout of piping and associated support systems… and equipment layout layout at the level of a single process unit and associated ancillaries.
Either of these disciplines may also be known colloquially but never in this book as Plant Layout. Initially, plot layout is mostly equipment layout, and piping layout only comes in only at the detailed design stage. There are a number of other confusing ways in which terms are used in layout design, so this book offers a standardized set of definitions at the start of each chapter, consolidated in Appendix G.
Standardizing definitions in this way makes it possible to see that there is a common core approach to laying out plants which represents the heart of universal best practice, and a number of variants on this which represent sector or discipline-specific best practice. I have tried to capture both the common core and variants in this book. To avoid confusing the reader, the main text of the book is based upon the common core approach with occasional mention of variants.
Complete outlines of key discipline-specific variants on the approach are given in Appendix D. Besides distinguishing between site, plot, and equipment layout, it is necessary to differentiate between the stages of layout design. While there is a certain amount of disagreement about where to draw the imaginary lines between stages, design is nominally a five-stage process:. In the past, project sanction and planning permission might have been sought and obtained on the basis of conceptual design, but nowadays FEED and detailed design usually precede sanction.
Some initial planning permission or guidance is however often sought during the FEED or even the Conceptual stage, so as to prevent delays and adverse financial consequences further down the line. These five stages are used almost universally because the adverse consequences of not having accurate cost and hazard assessments will increase considerably at each successive project stage. The preliminary stages of layout involve conception, evaluation, and modification, with the last two being repeated until a satisfactory solution is achieved.
Detailed layout involves developing the minutiae of the preliminary layout. Process and project experience remains the best basis for layout conception and modification, even though computers and their software applications have come a long way since the first edition of this book. The designer assigned to detailed layout is also involved with project planning, increasingly so since the introduction of computers for planning control. This issue is discussed in Chapter 5, Planning of Layout Activities. The training, skills, and experience of the chemical engineer are applied to the plant hazard identification, assessment, and mitigation techniques which have become an essential part of preliminary layout.
In the first edition of this book, it was implied that layout was the province of a design office with the chemical engineer in the background. However, hazard assessment of prospective layout designs is now very much a multidisciplinary partnership including layout designers and chemical engineers, amongst others. The legal requirements for providing environmental impact assessment and hazard surveys of potentially dangerous processes have not, as he expected, promoted such a development. When the first edition was prepared, separation distances, as outlined in codes of practice such as those of the Institute of Petroleum were sacrosanct.
Now, they are usually regarded as guidelines only for preliminary design and are being superseded in detailed layout by the development of methods based on mathematical models of the potential effects of leakage, evaporation, cloud drift and dispersion, vapor cloud explosion, and thermal radiation. Chapter 8, Hazard Assessment of Plant Layout, outlines the various types of calculation involved, Appendix B gives worked examples of some of these, and Appendix A discusses software used for these tasks.
These calculations are further complicated because knowledge of behavior after loss of containment and the true probability of a leak occurring are unknown, making it hard to precisely calculate required plant distances. Neither is the risk of damage and injuries that society will tolerate fixed, nor is it precisely known.
The quality of data on plant reliability and on public acceptability is, however, continually improving and may, in future, assist designers in achieving better solutions to layout problems. Thus this book is intended to be a guide to good practice and, although the contents set out recommended spacings and arrangements, it must be remembered that these are only typical and not mandatory. They may have to be altered to suit local conditions, the specific requirements of plant owners and established safe practices.
In particular, the guide has had to be largely phrased in terms of a new or greenfield site, whereas most projects are involved with modifications and extensions to existing plant. In such circumstances, existing site constraints inevitably make observance of best practice more difficult and may require that compromises are made. However, since making informed compromises between cost, safety, and robustness is the essence of good design, this should come as no surprise.
Bausbacher E, Hunt R.
New York: McGraw-Hill; Kidam K, Hurme M. Design as a contributor to chemical process accidents. Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries. Moran S. An applied guide to process and plant design Oxford: Butterworth Heinemann; Staged design is the norm in professional practice, each stage providing the information needed to pass to the next stage of approval.
Conceptual design decides plant size, location, and broad technology. Detailed design works out all but the very finest details of design. The discipline of layout design is that part of process plant design which determines how the equipment and supporting structures which make up a process plant as well as their interconnection by means of pipes, ducts, conveyors, vehicles, wired or wireless connections are to be laid out.
The supply of services to the plant and access to the periphery of the plant for maintenance, construction, and emergency services is affected by the location and layout of the site. On a new, or greenfield site, the layout design will need to reflect the known needs of the process plant or process units to be constructed.
Alternatively a plant may be placed on a number of plots on an existing, brownfield site. In this second case the requirements of a new plant may not have been foreseen at the time of the original site layout. At least some of the access arrangements that would normally be provided on a new site will have to be provided post hoc by the layout designers. Existing access arrangements may need reconsideration to suit the interrelationships between the existing and new plant or equipment. In this latter situation, layout designers have to consider plots in relation to each other within the site as well as activities outside the site, an activity called site layout in this book.
In traditional chemical plants, an ideal site would be split up into plots by its principal road system with additional access roads for the larger plots Fig. However, in many sectors, plants may not be big enough to have such a road system.
A complete set of process units known as a plant may fit onto a single plot, although larger plants may need two or more plots, and a site may contain a number of plots. Figure 2. Image courtesy Google In this chapter the broad discipline of layout design, as it is practiced by process engineers, pipers, and architects, will be explained and set in context.
repotuworsbuck.tk Good layout and, arguably, masterplanning practice plays a vital part in the ongoing commercial success of a project. It does this by making the plant safe and efficient to construct, operate, and maintain, while making effective use of the land available. A well-thought-out layout also contributes to successful planning of the design and construction stages of a project.
Good layout will not compensate for bad process design, but a bad layout can easily lead to an unsuccessful or unsafe plant. Changes to the layout during or after construction are very costly in both money and time.